The district of Palamu lies between 23°50' and 24°8' north latitude and between 83°55' and 84°30' east longitude. The district covers an area of 5043.8 km² and has a population of 1,533,176. It is bordered on the north by Son and Bihar rivers, on the east by the Chatra and Hazaribagh districts, on the south by Latehar District and on the west by Garhwa District. A great proportion of Palamu consists of hills covered with jungle. The soil in many parts is strongly impregnated with iron. Palamu is well known for rich mineral resources.
Daltonganj, situated on the North Koel river, 24 degree 3’ north, and 84 degree 4’ east, is the district headquarters of Palamu. Daltonganj is named after Colonel Dalton, Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur in 1861. The distance between Daltonganj and Ranchi is about 165 Km.
The Origin of the name Palamu is a matter of different opinions. According to some, it is derived from the Hindi word palana means “a place of refuse”. Another suggestions is that the name is combination of Pala meaning “ forst” and mu means “dead “, making it "dead due to frost". It may be due to the extreme winter temperatures.
The Palamu district is home to the famous 'Palamau National Park' known for its wild life. The park is spread over a core area of 250 square kilometers. The area is rich in flora and fauna but also prone to severe droughts. The Palamau National Park was brought under Project Tiger in the year 1973 and is among the original tiger reserves of India. Sal and bamboo are the main vegetation. The tourists can drive through dense patches of sal and bamboo in the park. The wildlife sanctuary can be reached by train from Daltonganj (25km) or by air from Ranchi (180km).
Palamu fort is also an important spot tourists must see. Most interesting of all is the massive and beautifully carved stone gate. In the new fort the 'Nagpuri gate' is of great beauty. It is said to have been imported of great expense by Medni Roy, the greatest of the Rajas of "Palamau", after he had sacked the place of the Maharaja of Chhotanagpur. The Auranga river flows close by. There are high hills and dense jungles all around.
The principals rivers flowing through Palamu district are Koel and its tributaries, the Auranga and the Amanat. The climate of Palamu varies can be divided in to three main seasons. The cold seasons from November to March, the hot season from March to May and the monsoon season from June to September. Temperature varies from 47 degree to 38 degree C during the summer month while in the monsoon months it is only 6 degree C to 8 degree C.
Blocks in Palamu District are Bishrampur, Chainpur, Chatarpur, Daltanganj, Hariharganj, Hussainabad, Lesliganj, Manatu, Pandu, Panki, Patan, Satbarwa and Haidernagar. The major tourist destinations include Palamu Tiger Reserve, Amjharia, Betla Forest, Daltonganj, Dundu, Gulgulpat, Kanti Falls, Kechki, Kulka, Loda Falls, Palamau Fort etc..
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